Heimildir

1. Spilburg CA, Goldberg AC, McGill JB, Stenson WF, Racette SB, Bateman J, McPherson TB, Ostlund RE Jr. Fat-free foods supplemented with soy stanol-lecithin powder reduce cholesterol absorption and LDL cholesterol. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103:577-81.

2. Homma Y, Ikeda I, Ishikawa T, Tateno M, Sugano M, Nakamura H. Decrease in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein by plant stanol ester-containing spread: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition. 2003;19:369-74.

3. Miettinen TA, Gylling H, Lindbohm N, Miettinen TE, Rajaratnam RA, Relas H; Finnish Treat-to-Target Study Investigators. Serum noncholesterol sterols during inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by statins. J Lab Clin Med 2003;141:131-7.

4. Sudhop T, Lutjohann D, Agna M, von Ameln C, Prange W, von Bergmann K. Comparison of the effects of sitostanol, sitostanol acetate, and sitostanol oleate on the inhibition of cholesterol absorption in normolipemic healthy male volunteers. A placebo controlled randomized cross-over study. Arzneimittelforschung 2003;53:708-13.

5. De Graaf J, De Sauvage Nolting PR, Van Dam M, Belsey EM, Kastelein JJ, Haydn Pritchard P, Stalenhoef AF. Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Br J Nutr 2002;88:479-88.

6. Tammi A, Ronnemaa T, Miettinen TA, Gylling H, Rask-Nissila L, Viikari J, Tuominen J, Marniemi J, Simell O. Effects of gender, apolipoprotein E phenotype and cholesterol-lowering by plant stanol esters in children: the STRIP study. Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(11):1155-62.

7. Sudhop T, Sahin Y, Lindenthal B, Hahn C, Luers C, Berthold HK, von Bergmann K. Comparison of the hepatic clearances of campesterol, sitosterol, and cholesterol in healthy subjects suggests that efflux transporters controlling intestinal sterol absorption also regulate biliary secretion. Gut 2002;51:860-3.

8. Ishiwata K, Homma Y, Ishikawa T, Nakamura H, Handa S. Influence of apolipoprotein E phenotype on metabolism of lipids and apolipoproteins after plant stanol ester ingestion in Japanese subjects. Nutrition 2002;18:561-5.

9. Raeini-Sarjaz M, Ntanios FY, Vanstone CA, Jones PJ. No changes in serum fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations with the intake of plant sterol/stanol esters in the context of a controlled diet. Metabolism 2002;51:652-6.

10. Plat J, Mensink RP. Effects of plant stanol esters on LDL receptor protein expression and on LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in mononuclear blood cells of healthy men and women. FASEB J. 2002;16:258-60.

11. Noakes M, Clifton P, Ntanios F, Shrapnel W, Record I, McInerney J. An increase in dietary carotenoids when consuming plant sterols or stanols is effective in maintaining plasma carotenoid concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:79-86.

12. Mensink RP, Ebbing S, Lindhout M, Plat J, van Heugten MM. Effects of plant stanol esters supplied in low-fat yoghurt on serum lipids and lipoproteins, non-cholesterol sterols and fat soluble antioxidant concentrations. Atherosclerosis 2002;160:205-13.

13. Nestel P, Cehun M, Pomeroy S, Abbey M, Weldon G. Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat foods. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:1084-90.

14. Plat J, Mensink RP. Effects of diets enriched with two different plant stanol ester mixtures on plasma ubiquinol-10 and fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations.

Metabolism 2001;50:520-9.

15. Tammi A, Ronnemaa T, Gylling H, Rask-Nissila L, Viikari J, Tuominen J, Pulkki K, Simell O. Plant stanol ester margarine lowers serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of healthy children: the STRIP project. Special Turku Coronary Risk Factors Intervention Project. J Pediatr 2000;136:503-10.

16. Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Gylling H, Erkkila AT, Uusitupa MI. Comparison of the effects of plant sterol ester and plant stanol ester-enriched margarines in lowering serum cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic subjects on a low-fat diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:715-25.

17. Plat J, van Onselen EN, van Heugten MM, Mensink RP. Effects on serum lipids, lipoproteins and fat soluble antioxidant concentrations of consumption frequency of margarines and shortenings enriched with plant stanol esters. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:671-7.

18. Blair SN, Capuzzi DM, Gottlieb SO, Nguyen T, Morgan JM, Cater NB. Incremental reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing spread to statin therapy. Am J Cardiol 2000;86:46-52.

19. Jones PJ, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Ntanios FY, Vanstone CA, Feng JY, Parsons WE. Modulation of plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics by phytosterol versus phytostanol esters. J Lipid Res 2000;41:697-705.

20. Normen L, Dutta P, Lia A, Andersson H. Soy sterol esters and beta-sitostanol ester as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption in human small bowel. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:908-13.

21. Relas H, Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Effect of stanol ester on postabsorptive squalene and retinyl palmitate. Metabolism 2000;49:473-8.

22. Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI. Plant stanol esters affect serum cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men and women in a dose-dependent manner. J Nutr 2000;130:767-76.

23. Vuorio AF, Gylling H, Turtola H, Kontula K, Ketonen P, Miettinen TA. Stanol ester margarine alone and with simvastatin lowers serum cholesterol in families with familial hypercholesterolemia caused by the FH-North Karelia mutation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:500-6.

24. Plat J, Mensink RP. Vegetable oil based versus wood based stanol ester mixtures: effects on serum lipids and hemostatic factors in non-hypercholesterolemic subjects.

Atherosclerosis 2000;148:101-12.

25. Williams CL, Bollella MC, Strobino BA, Boccia L, Campanaro L. Plant stanol ester and bran fiber in childhood: effects on lipids, stool weight and stool frequency in preschool children. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:572-81.

26. Hallikainen MA, Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI. Effects of low-fat stanol ester enriched margarines on concentrations of serum carotenoids in subjects with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:966-9.

27. Nguyen TT, Dale LC, von Bergmann K, Croghan IT. Cholesterol-lowering effect of stanol ester in a US population of mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 1999;74:1198-206.

28. Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Cholesterol reduction by different plant stanol mixtures and with variable fat intake. Metabolism 1999;48:575-80.

29. Gylling H, Puska P, Vartiainen E, Miettinen TA. Serum sterols during stanol ester feeding in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. J Lipid Res 1999;40:593-600.

30. Hallikainen MA, Uusitupa MI. Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:403-10.

31. Ostlund RE Jr, Spilburg CA, Stenson WF. Sitostanol administered in lecithin micelles potently reduces cholesterol absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:826-31.

32. Jones PJ, Ntanios FY, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Vanstone CA. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a sitostanol-containing phytosterol mixture with a prudent diet in hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:1144-50.

33. Weststrate JA, Meijer GW. Plant sterol-enriched margarines and reduction of plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:334-43.

34. Jones PJ, Howell T, MacDougall DE, Feng JY, Parsons W. Short-term administration of tall oil phytosterols improves plasma lipid profiles in subjects with different cholesterol levels. Metabolism 1998;47:751-6.

35. Gylling H, Radhakrishnan R, Miettinen TA. Reduction of serum cholesterol in postmenopausal women with previous myocardial infarction and cholesterol malabsorption induced by dietary sitostanol ester margarine: women and dietary sitostanol. Circulation 1997;96:4226-31.

36. Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Effects of inhibiting cholesterol absorption and synthesis on cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in hypercholesterolemic non-insulin-dependent diabetic men. J Lipid Res 1996;37:1776-85.

37. Miettinen TA, Puska P, Gylling H, Vanhanen H, Vartiainen E. Reduction of serum cholesterol with sitostanol-ester margarine in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1308-12.

38. Gylling H, Siimes MA, Miettinen TA. Sitostanol ester margarine in dietary treatment of children with familial hypercholesterolemia. J Lipid Res 1995;36:1807-12.

39. Denke MA. Lack of efficacy of low-dose sitostanol therapy as an adjunct to a cholesterol-lowering diet in men with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:392-6.

40. Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Serum cholesterol and cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in hypercholesterolaemic NIDDM patients before and during sitostanol ester-margarine treatment. Diabetologia 1994;37:773-80.

41. Vanhanen HT, Kajander J, Lehtovirta H, Miettinen TA. Serum levels, absorption efficiency, faecal elimination and synthesis of cholesterol during increasing doses of dietary sitostanol esters in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Clin Sci (Lond) 1994;87:61-7.

42. Miettinen TA, Vanhanen H. Dietary sitostanol related to absorption, synthesis and serum level of cholesterol in different apolipoprotein E phenotypes. Atherosclerosis 1994;105:217-26.

43. Vanhanen HT, Blomqvist S, Ehnholm C, Hyvonen M, Jauhiainen M, Torstila I, Miettinen TA. Serum cholesterol, cholesterol precursors, and plant sterols in hypercholesterolemic subjects with different apoE phenotypes during dietary sitostanol ester treatment. J Lipid Res 1993;34:1535-44.

44. Heinemann T, Kullak-Ublick GA, Pietruck B, von Bergmann K. Mechanisms of action of plant sterols on inhibition of cholesterol absorption. Comparison of sitosterol and sitostanol. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991;40 Suppl 1:S59-63.